IOT(Internet of Things) for Beginners

What is IoT (Internet of Things)?

Internet of things as we can understand from the name itself i.e. Internet + Things. Now, first of all, we have things i.e. all and every gadget, devices, and appliances that we use in our houses and office, etc.
Second is the internet which is the vast network of computers around the globe where we can share information and controls etc.
When we interface things with the internet it is called the Internet of Things. For example — we have each and every appliance in our home like a fridge, TV, Washing machine, microwave, etc. Presently in most places, it is operated manually as the person who operates has to be present beside the machine.
Today we know that it’s a fast-moving world so everyone has a scarcity of time so in order to save time, we take the help of IOT technology.
Now before we how its implemented, we need to need to understand how IOT works.
There are 3 basic Components:

  • Input
  • Processing
  • Output

For example, an Air Conditioner’s sensor can gather the data regarding the outside temperatures, and accordingly adjust its temperature to increase or decrease it with respect to the outside climate. Similarly, your refrigerators can also adjust its temperature accordingly. This is how devices can interact with a network.

How IoT Works?

The entire process starts with the devices themselves, such as smartphones, digital watches, electronic appliances which securely communicate with an internet of things platform. IoT platform collects and combines data from multiple devices and platforms and applies analytics to share the most valuable data with applications to address industry-specific needs.

Let’s start with a simple real-life example- Rajesh, in between his road trip notices some problem with the check engine light, however, he doesn’t know the intensity of the problem. The good part is that the sensor that triggers the check engine light monitors the pressure in the inner brake line. This sensor is one of the many sensors present in the car which constantly communicate with each other. A component called the diagnostic bus gathers the data from all these sensors and then passes it to the gateway in the car. The gateway collects and sorts the data from different sensors.

Before this connection to happen, the car’s gateway and platform must register with each other and confirm a secure communication. The platform keeps on constantly gathering and storing information from hundreds of cars worldwide, building a record in a database. The manufacturer has added rules and logic to the platform. The platform triggers an alert in his car, after sensing the brake fluid has dropped below the recommended level. The manufacturer then sends him an appointment for servicing his car, and the car’s problem is rectified.

Components of IOT?

There are four main components used in IoT:

  1. Low-power embedded systems –
    Less battery consumption, high performance are the inverse factors that play a significant role during the design of electronic systems.
  2. Cloud computing –
    Data collected through IoT devices is massive and this data has to be stored on a reliable storage server. This is where cloud computing comes into play. The data is processed and learned, giving more room for us to discover where things like electrical faults/errors are within the system.
  3. Availability of big data –
    We know that IoT relies heavily on sensors, especially in real-time. As these electronic devices spread throughout every field, their usage is going to trigger a massive flux of big data.
  4. Networking connection –
    In order to communicate, internet connectivity is a must where each physical object is represented by an IP address. However, there are only a limited number of addresses available according to IP naming. Due to the growing number of devices, this naming system will not be feasible anymore. Therefore, researchers are looking for another alternative naming system to represent each physical object.

There are two ways of building IoT:

  1. Form a separate internetwork including only physical objects.
  2. Make the Internet ever more expansive, but this requires hard-core technologies such as rigorous cloud computing and rapid big data storage (expensive).

Features of IoT

Here, in this part of IOT Tutorial, we will discuss the most important features of IoT in areas of artificial intelligence, sensors, connectivity. A brief review of these features is given below:

  • AI– IoT technically makes things smart, meaning that it enhances different aspects of life through proper usage of that data, networks, and algorithms. This can range from something as simple as improving or enhancing your refrigerator by embedding it with sensors that automatically detect when milk and eggs run low, to placing an order with your choice of the grocer.
  • Connectivity–The notion of networking doesn’t always have to restrict to large networks, it can also exist on a smaller and cheaper scale without compromising its efficiency. IoT comes into the picture and creates these small networks between its system devices.
  • Sensors–The true essence of IoT would not hold effective without sensors. They are basically the reason and the crux of why this technology stands out. They play a major role in defining boundaries of IOT by converting it from a passive to an active network.
  • Active Engagement–Today’s interaction between different connected technologies happens through passive engagement. IoT has set an example by bringing inactive content, product, or service engagement.
  • Devices–Devices are more powerful, cheaper, and smaller over time, Internet of Things purposely makes use of small devices to deliver its scalability, versatility, and accuracy.

4. IoT Applications

In this IoT Tutorial, we learn Applications of the Internet of Things. Let’s discuss them one by one:

  • Healthcare Application: These days we have digital watches and fitness monitoring devices that have changed the ways of healthcare monitoring. People can now monitor their own health at regular intervals of time. These days if a person is being rushed to the hospital by an ambulance, his/her healthcare statistics are already given to the doctor, and the treatment gets started well in time. Also, data collected from different patients are now being put to use for the cure.
  • Energy Applications: The energy rates have become paramount. All Individuals and organizations, both are searching for ways to reduce and control the consumption of energy. IoT provides a way to monitor energy usages not only at the appliance-level but also at the grid level, house-level or even at the distribution level. Smart systems such as Meters & Smart Grids are installed at various organizations to monitor energy consumption.
  • Education Applications: IoT’s yet another great application lies in the field of education. IoT helps in fulfilling the gaps and loopholes in the education industry. It improves the quality of education being offered to students by optimizing the cost. It also improves administration and management by taking into consideration students’ responses and performance.
  • Government Applications: The smart city initiative by our government is an example of how efficient and big this technology is. Its incorporation in sectors like transportation, healthcare, armed forces, and security is commendable.


This IOT tutorial has covered every detail that a beginner needs to know. It’s now time to take one step ahead: Support my tutorial for the next IOT section.



Get the Medium app

A button that says 'Download on the App Store', and if clicked it will lead you to the iOS App store
A button that says 'Get it on, Google Play', and if clicked it will lead you to the Google Play store
Abhishek Srivastava

Abhishek Srivastava


Senior Software Engineer | Android | Java | Kotlin |Xamarin Native Android |Flutter |Go